Most of the time, you will start using a Subversion
repository by doing a checkout of your
project. Checking out a repository creates a copy of it on your
local machine. This copy contains the
(latest revision) of the Subversion repository that you specify
on the command line:
$ svn checkout http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk A trunk/subversion.dsw A trunk/svn_check.dsp A trunk/COMMITTERS A trunk/configure.in A trunk/IDEAS … Checked out revision 2499.
Although the above example checks out the trunk directory, you can just as easily check out any deep subdirectory of a repository by specifying the subdirectory in the checkout URL:
$ svn checkout http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/doc/book/tools A tools/readme-dblite.html A tools/fo-stylesheet.xsl A tools/svnbook.el A tools/dtd A tools/dtd/dblite.dtd … Checked out revision 2499.
Since Subversion uses a “copy-modify-merge” model instead of “lock-modify-unlock” (see Chapter 2, Basic Concepts), you're already able to start making changes to the files and directories in your working copy. Your working copy is just like any other collection of files and directories on your system. You can edit and change them, move them around, you can even delete the entire working copy and forget about it.
While your working copy is “just like any other collection of files and directories on your system”, you need to let Subversion know if you're going to be rearranging anything inside of your working copy. If you want to copy or move an item in a working copy, you should use svn copy or svn move instead of the copy and move commands provided by your operating system. We'll talk more about them later in this chapter.
Unless you're ready to commit a new file or directory, or changes to existing ones, there's no need to further notify the Subversion server that you've done anything.
While you can certainly check out a working copy with the URL of the repository as the only argument, you can also specify a directory after your repository URL. This places your working copy in the new directory that you name. For example:
$ svn checkout http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk subv A subv/subversion.dsw A subv/svn_check.dsp A subv/COMMITTERS A subv/configure.in A subv/IDEAS … Checked out revision 2499.
That will place your working copy in a directory named
subv instead of a directory named
trunk as we did previously.